Fitness-In some insect species, the associated costs of evolutionary pesticide resistance have been reported, but the interaction between evolutionary adaptation to pesticide pressure and variable environmental conditions has received little attention.We supply nymphs from three German cockroaches (German bees.) Different populations in terms of pesticide resistance, either rich in nutrition or poor in Nutrition (dilution) throughout development ).
One population is pesticide.
Susceptible laboratory strain;The other two groups come from one area.Collect Budweiser-Resistant populations, at the time of collection, retain or do not retain further options with in-worm.We then measured the developmental time of in-worm, the survival time of the adult stage, the adult size, and the outcome of the challenge.
Our results show that the poor in-worm resistance and nutritional status increase development time, reduce body size and enhance interaction in adults.We also found that the survival rate of in-worm was lower in adulthoodPart of the population is aggravated by malnutrition.In addition, nutrition has a very significant effect on the sensitivity of in-worm.
This study shows that malnutrition can aggravate life.The historical cost of resistance and the increase in the harmful effects of pesticide exposure indicate how environmental conditions and resistance interact to affect individual health and pesticide efficacy.Insecticide-resistant and -The susceptible strains of German cockroaches come from two fieldsPopulation CollectedPesticide sensitive strain (normal Orlando;ON), collected more than 60 years ago in Orlando, Florida, has been maintained as a standard, unselected laboratory population with no known resistance to any pesticide.
Insecticide-Anti-cockroach (PR-712) collected in Carolina, Puerto Rico, in August 2012, when multiple pesticides failed to control the population.After the collection, this group (3000 people) was allowed to breed to a population size of more than one person within six months and then divided equally into two laboratories --Maintain the population: the population selected with in worm Wei at more than 2.For 5 years, a year that remained unselected without further exposure to pesticides.
We choose resistance to in-worm by supplying Advion gel bait (Syngenta of NC Greensboro, USA, containing 0.6% in worm Wei), three consecutive days every two months.This method selects cockroaches about every generation.
The feeding and maintenance of all three groups is similar in all other respects to the conditions described by Jensen's Population Culture.Including rich nutritional conditions.The population size of these three groups remained at 1500-4000.Density is adjusted by removing and replacing one of the three corrugated coils, with a population of up to 1 out of 3 within three hoursIf the population is more than 3000 people, one month apart.
After five years of repeated manual selection, the resistance levels of these three groups to in-worm were matched with their adaptation background.All stages of the experiment were carried out under the system of 25 °c and 12: 12 L: D.We produce a high or low nutrient concentration diet based on ground and screened rat feed (Purina 5001 Rodent animal diet;International Purchasing Managers IndexLouis, Missouri, USA), a complete diet with high nutritional quality that can grow in German cockroaches.
Specific macro nutrients of Purina rat chow are given in Shik..Nutrient-The rich diet includes rat food and nutrients in 4% AgarPoor diet includes a rat diet diluted with crystal α-1 Mass for 1:1Cellulose (Sigma C-6429, Sigma-Aldrich, St.Louis, Missouri, United States of America), also in 4% Agar.
The mouse was ground and screened out by 0.71u2009mm mesh.Cellulose has limited nutritional value as a leavening agent.After boiling the water with Agar, the two diets are mixed in distilled water at 50 °c, frozen-dried.
Diet in cookiesLike cubes up to 1 cm and re-supply as needed to ensure constant availability.When nymphs try to compensate for the low nutrient content, dilution with cellulose results in a higher consumption, but this nutritional compensation is low when the dilution level is high.Because a lot of nutrientsWorse than NutritionRich diet is consumed, nutrition-A bad diet is replenished in larger cubes more frequently than nutrients --rich diet.
Each of the nymphs from these three groups is assigned to a transparent glass jar (10 cm diameter × 10 cm height) and 10 nymphs per tank within 24 hours of incubationThe jar contains an egg carton for harborage, covered with a square of paper towels fixed with rubber bands.To prevent climbing, a thin layer of Vaseline and mineral oil mixture is arranged on the inner wall of the jar.Nymphs get free water from CottonInserted glass tube for continuous replacement (9mm diameter × 75 length ).
The newly removed adult was recorded and collected within 24 hours of feather, and the individual pronunciation width was measured with a calibrated eyepiece micrometer in an anatomical microscope.After entering the adult stage, from the unselected PR-712 of the population is uniquely stored in a petri dish with a water pipe (100 × 16 in diameter) and the same diet can be obtained as during development.Eight days later-In the presence of carbon dioxide, the male mouse was briefly anesthesia, and the in worm of 50 μg was 0.
5 μ l acetone was applied locally to the abdomen of the chest.A daily survival check is performed on individuals and is recorded as dead (or dead) when they are unable to stand ).The maximum survival time was 28 days, which greatly exceeded the death time of in worm.
We chose the effect of dietary conditions on male in-worm Weimin in the PR-medium test that was never selected only712 people, because we expect this group to represent the original field population best, and because of the different levels of resistance, very different doses are required to measure multiple groups and both sexes.Proportional hazard test (JMP 7.0, SAS Research Institute Co., Ltd.Cary, NC, USA) was used to analyze the overall impact of population, diet, and gender on the number, development time, adult pronunciation width of each jar to the adult stage, and survival after the partial application of in worm Wei in the unselected PR-Male712 population.Using Kruskal-multiple comparisons of population, diet, and genderThe Wallis test was performed at the significance level of α = u2009 0.
05 (SPSS 22.
0, IBM Research Institute Co.
Chicago, USA ).
Proportional Hazard and Kruskal-Wallis tests were selected for all analyses because the data are not normally distributed (Shapiro-Wilk test, will ......